563 bird species have been identified in Spain, including its outlying islands. The Canary and Balearic Islands are especially imporant.
Spain occupies 85% of the Iberian Peninsula which it shares with Portugal. With its 15 islands, Spain is the second largest country in Europe.
It is a constitutional monarchy. King Juan Carlos has served since 1975, i.e., after the overthrow of Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War.
Spain is mountainous with three climatic zones: the dry warm Mediterranean; the semiarid southeastern quarter of the country; and the oceanic the north quarter.